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复合句(宾语从句、状语从句、定语从句)(2013年真题为例)

发布时间:2014-03-08 12:49:53  

语法互动(十四) 复合句(宾 语从句、状语从句、定语从句)

语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

名 师 点 睛
有一个主句和一个以上的从句构成的句子叫复合句。初中阶 段涉及复合句的高频考点在状语从句、宾语从句和定语从句上。
考点一 宾语从句

当一个句子在复合句中充当宾语时,该句叫宾语从句。其考点主 要是宾语从句的引导词、语序及时态等。

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

1. 宾语从句的语序 无论引导词是that, if, whether 还是特殊疑问词,宾语 从句的语序必须用陈述语序。如: Do you know what _________ he is doing? 你知道他正在做什么吗? 2. 宾语从句的引导词 (1)由 that 引导的宾语从句一般为陈述句,that 在句 中不充当任何成分,一般可省略。如: I don't know (that) he has come back from Shanghai. 我不知道他已经从上海回来了。
名师点睛 考点过关

语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

(2) 由 if 或 whether 引导的宾语从句 if 和 whether 表示“是否”,在句中不作任何成分,通常 可以互换。(从句中有or not时,只能用 whether)。如: I wonder whether or not he has come back. 我想知道他是不是已经回来了。 (3)由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句,疑问代词 who, what, which, whom在从句中作主语或宾语。疑问副词 when, where, why, how 等在从句中作状语。如: Do you know where he lives? 你知道他住在哪儿吗?

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

3. 宾语从句的时态 (1)主句时态是一般现在时,从句谓语动词根据具体情况使 用任何一种时态。如: He says that he'll pass the exam. 他说他会通过考试的。 He says that he____________ came back yesterday. 他说他是昨天回来的。

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

(2)主句谓语动词是一般过去时,从句谓语动词用相应的过 去时态。如: She said that there________ were many books on the desk. 她说桌上有很多书。 He told me he had finished his work. 他告诉我他已经完成了他的工作。 (3)如果从句表示的是客观真理,从句时态不受主句时态影 响,用一般现在时。如: The teacher told his students that the earth goes around the sun. 老师告诉学生们地球围绕太阳转。
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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

考点二

状语从句

如果句子在复合句中作状语,则该句叫状语从句。其考点 是从句引导词及主从句时态一致问题。 1. 时间状语从句 由when, before, after, until, as soon as, while, as, since等引导的状语从句叫时间状语从句。如: as soon as I'll call you________________ he comes back. 他一回来我就给你打电话。 He didn't go to bed________ until he finished his homework. 他直到

做完作业才睡觉。
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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

2. 条件状语从句 由 if (如果)引导的状语从句叫条件状语从句。如: We'll go there by bike if it doesn't rain. 如果不下雨,我们就骑自行车去那里。

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句
3. 其他状语从句及其引导词 从句名称 地点状语从句 原因状语从句 目的状语从句 让步状语从句 比较状语从句 结果状语从句 引导词 where, wherever because, as, since(既然) so that(以便), in order that(为了) though/although(虽然), even if (即使) than, as?as, not as?as that, so that, so?that, such?that (以至于??)

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

4.主句与从句时态一致问题 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,主句和从句之间的复合 句时态一般有两种情况: (1)主现从现:若主句是祈使句或主句中有情态动词时,从 句用一般现在时表示将来。如: Be careful when you cross the road. 过马路时要小心。

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

(2)主将从现:主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时。如: I will visit my good friend when I have time. 当我有时间时,我将去看望我的好朋友。 (3)过去时态:若主从句都是在叙述过去的事情,则主从句 可以用一般过去时或过去进行时。如: got home yesterday. Mother was cooking when I ___________ 昨天我到家时,妈妈正在做饭。

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句
考点三 定语从句

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。其考 点在关系词that, which, who的选用。 1. 关系代词的基本用法 (1)that既可指人,也可指物。在定语从句中作主语或宾语, 作主语时不可省略,作宾语时可省略。如: The train that has just left is for Shanghai. (that 指物,作主语,不可省略) 刚刚离开的那列火车是开往上海的。 Is this the photo (that) you took last summer ? (that 指物,作宾语,可省略) 这是你去年夏天照的照片吗?
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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

(2)which 指物,在定语从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可 省略,作宾语时可省略。which和 that一般可互换。如: The computer which/that I wanted to buy was sold out. 我想买的电脑卖光了。 (3)who和whom都指人。who在定语从句中作主语,whom 在定 语从句中作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who或 that代替 whom, whom 也可以省略。如:

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

The girl who plays the piano very well is his daughter. 那个钢琴弹得很好的女孩儿是他女儿。 Where is the girl (who/whom) you met last night ? 你昨晚遇到的那个女孩儿在哪里? [

提醒] 当关系代词作主语时,其后的谓语动词应与先行词在 数上保持一致。

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

2.关系代词的特殊用法 当关系代词指物时,下列情况只能用that而不能用which: (1)当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。如: It is the largest map that I have ever seen. 它是我见过的最大的地图。 (2)当先行词被 only, any, no, all, little, few, the very等词修饰时。如: This is the only thing that you should care about. 这是唯一一件你应该关心的事情。

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句
(3)当先行词为all, something, everything, none, much, no one, the one 等代词时。如: There is nothing that belongs to you in the room. 这个房间里没有属于你的东西。 (4)当先行词既有人又有物时。如: We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. 我们谈论了我们所记得的人和事。 (5)主句是以which引导的特殊疑问句。如: Which of the books that you bought yesterday was written by Mo Yan? 你昨天买的哪本书是莫言写的?
名师点睛 考点过关

语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

考 点 过 关
C 1.The story ________I read in the newspaper was about a common problem among teenagers. A.whose B.who C.that D.where 2.The students________ I met in a football game are C my best friends now. A. when B.which C.who D.whose 3. The first thing ________we should do is to tell him C the good news. A.who B.which C.that D.whom
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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

4.He said that light ________much faster than sound. C A.has travelled B. travelling C. travels D. travelled 5.—Could you tell me ________ ? C —It's twenty minutes' ride by bike. A. how can I get to your school B.how much it costs to get to your school C.how far it is from your home to your school D.how long does it take me to get to your school

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

C 6. The manager asked the man________. The man answered “Yes”. A.what the story was about B.when did the story happen C.if the story was true D.whether had he heard the story 7.Helen will call me up when she ________in ShijiaD zhuang. A. arrive B.will arrive C.arrived D.arrives

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语法互动(十四)┃ 复合句

8.The new-designed car is on show. I wonder ________ . C A.how much it cost B.how much did it cost C.how much it costs D.how much does it cost

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